As a permanent resident, you may travel outside Canada after you arrive. However, you must meet certain residency obligations to maintain your status as a permanent resident.
To meet these residency obligations, you must be physically present in Canada for at least 730 days (2 years) in every 5-year period. The 5-year period is assessed on a rolling basis. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) will look back at your time in Canada over the previous 5 years.
This means that you can spend a total of up to 3 years outside of Canada during a 5-year period. However, if you have been a permanent resident for less than 5 years and decide to leave the country for an extended period of time, it is up to you to prove to IRCC that you will be able to meet your residency requirements.
If you are outside Canada for extended periods of time, you can accumulate residency days if you are:
Travelling with a Canadian spouse or common-law partner, or are a child under 19 years of age accompanying a parent, or
Employed on a full-time basis by a Canadian business or the Public Service of Canada and are assigned a position outside of Canada, or The spouse, common-law partner or child of a permanent resident who is outside Canada and who is employed on a full-time basis by a Canadian business or the Public Service of Canada.
If you are in Canada and an immigration officer determines that you have not complied with your residency obligations, the officer may issue a departure order that requires you to leave Canada.
If you are outside of Canada and do not meet residency obligations, immigration officers abroad may inform you in writing that you have lost your permanent residence status.
If you lose your permanent resident status, you can submit an appeal within 60 days of receiving the decision. If you appeal, the officer may consider humanitarian and compassionate reasons before making a final decision about your permanent resident status.
If you know that you will be out of the country for an extended period of time it is very important that you contact Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) and let them know that you will be returning. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada no longer issues Returning Resident Permits.
If you plan to apply for Canadian citizenship, please note that time spent outside of Canada cannot be counted towards the citizenship residency requirements. Currently, you must spend at least 3 of the last 5 years (1,095 days) in Canada as a legal resident of Canada to be eligible to apply for citizenship.